1096 - Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Sofia, Bulgaria. There they met their Byzantine escort, which brought them safely the rest of the way to Constantinople. by August 1.
1543 - England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife,
1690 - Protestant forces led by William of Orange defeated the
Roman Catholic army of James II.
1691 - William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies
at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
1790 - The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing
for the election of priests and bishops.
1806 - The Confederation of the Rhine was established in Germany.
1862 - The U.S. Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.
1864 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln witnessed the battle where Union forces repelled Jubal Early's army on the outskirts of Washington, DC.
1870 - The first rotary can opener with a cutting wheel was patented by William W. Lyman.
1912 - The first foreign-made film to premiere in America, "Queen
Elizabeth", was shown.
1931 - A major league baseball record for doubles was set as the St. Louis Cardinals and the Chicago Cubs combined for a total of 23.
1933 - A minimum wage of 40 cents an hour was established in the U.S.
1941 - Moscow was bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first
1946 - "The Adventures of Sam Spade" was heard on ABC radio for
the first time.
1954 - U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a highway
modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal
and state governments.
1954 - The Major League Baseball Players Association was organized
in Cleveland, OH.
1957 - The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reported that
there was a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
1960 - Manufacturing began for the Etch A Sketch®.
1974 - John Ehrlichman, a former aide to U.S. President Nixon, and
three others were convicted of conspiring to violate the
civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg's former psychiatrist.
1982 - "E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial" broke all box-office records
by surpassing the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the
first 31 days of its opening.
1982 - The last of the distinctive-looking Checker taxicabs rolled
off the assembly line in Kalamazoo, MI.
1984 - Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale named
U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running
mate. Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president
on a major party ticket.
1990 - Russian republic president Boris N. Yeltsin announced his
resignation from the the Soviet Communist Party.
1998 - 1.7 billion people watched soccer's World Cup finals between
France and Brazil. France won 3-0.
1999 - Walt Disney Co. announced that it was merging all of its
Internet operations together with Infoseek into Go.com.
Disney movies, music and books
2000 - Russia launched the Zvezda after two years of delays.
The module was built to be the living quarters for the
International Space Station (ISS.)
2000 - The movie "X-Men" premiered in New York.