March 31


1492 - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued the Alhambra edict expelling Jews who were unwilling to convert to Christianity.

1776 - Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John that women were "determined to foment a rebellion" if the new Declaration of Independence failed to guarantee their rights.

1779 - Russia and Turkey signed a treaty concerning military action in Crimea.

1831 - Quebec and Montreal were incorporated as cities.

1854 - The U.S. government signed the Treaty of Kanagawa with Japan. The act opened the ports of Shimoda and Hakotade to American trade.

1862 - Skirmishing between Rebels and Union forces took place at Island 10 on the Mississippi River.

1870 - In Perth Amboy, NJ, Thomas Munday Peterson became the first black to vote in the U.S.

1880 - Wabash, IN, became the first town to be completely illuminated with electric light.

1885 - Binney & Smith Company was founded in New York City. The company later became Crayola, LLC.

1889 - In Paris, the Eiffel Tower officially opened.

1900 - The W.E. Roach Company was the first automobile company to put an advertisement in a national magazine. The magazine was the "Saturday Evening Post".

1900 - In France, the National Assembly passed a law reducing the workday for women and children to 11 hours.

1901 - In Russia, the Czar lashed out at Socialist-Revolutionaries with the arrests of 72 people and the seizing of two printing presses.

1902 - In Tennessee, 22 coal miners were killed by an explosion.

1904 - In India, hundreds of Tibetans were slaughtered by the British.

1905 - Kaiser Wilhelm arrived in Tangier proclaiming to support for an independent state of Morocco.

1906 - The Conference on Moroccan Reforms in Algerciras ended after two months with France and Germany in agreement.

1906 - The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was founded to set rules in amateur sports. The organization became the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910.

1908 - 250,000 coal miners in Indianapolis, IN, went on strike to await a wage adjustment.

1909 - Serbia accepted Austrian control over Bosnia-Herzegovina.

1917 - The U.S. purchased and took possession of the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million.

1918 - For the first time in the U.S., Daylight Saving Time went into effect.

1921 - Great Britain declared a state of emergency because of the thousands of coal miners on strike.

1923 - In New York City, the first U.S. dance marathon was held. Alma Cummings set a new world record of 27 hours.

1932 - The Ford Motor Co. debuted its V-8 engine.

1933 - The U.S. Congress authorized the Civilian Conservation Corps to relieve rampant unemployment.

1933 - The "Soperton News" in Georgia became the first newspaper to publish using a pine pulp paper.

1939 - Britain and France agreed to support Poland if Germany threatened invasion.

1940 - La Guardia airport in New York officially opened to the public.

1941 - Germany began a counter offensive in North Africa.

1945 - "The Glass Menagerie" by Tennessee Williams opened on Broadway.

1946 - Monarchists won the elections in Greece.

1947 - John L. Lewis called a strike in sympathy for the miners killed in an explosion in Centralia, IL, on March 25, 1947.

1948 - The Soviets in Germany began controlling the Western trains headed toward Berlin.

1949 - Winston Churchill declared that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the U.S.S.R. from taking over Europe.

1949 - Newfoundland entered the Canadian confederation as its 10th province.

1958 - The U.S. Navy formed the atomic submarine division.

1959 - The Dalai Lama (Lhama Dhondrub, Tenzin Gyatso) began exile by crossing the border into India where he was granted political asylum. Gyatso was the 14th Daila Lama.

1960 - The South African government declared a state of emergency after demonstrations led to the death of more than 50 Africans.

1966 - An estimated 200,000 anti-war demonstrators march in New York City. (New York)

1966 - The Soviet Union launched Luna 10, which became the first spacecraft to enter a lunar orbit.

1967 - U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signed the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.

1970 - The U.S. forces in Vietnam down a MIG-21, it was the first since September 1968.

1976 - The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that Karen Anne Quinlan could be disconnected from a respirator. Quinlan remained comatose until 1985 when she died.

1980 - U.S. President Carter deregulated the banking industry.

1981 - In Bangkok, Thailand, four of five Indonesian terrorists were killed after hijacking an airplane on March 28.

1985 - ABC-TV aired the 200th episode of "The Love Boat."

1986 - 167 people died when a Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashed in Los Angeles.

1987 - HBO (Home Box Office) earned its first Oscar for "Down and Out in America".

1989 - Canada and France signed a fishing rights pact.

1991 - Albania offered a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years. Incumbent President Ramiz Alia won.

1991 - Iraqi forces recaptured the northern city of Kirkuk from Kurdish guerillas.

1993 - Brandon Lee was killed accidentally while filming a movie.

1994 - "Nature" magazine announced that a complete skull of Australppithecus afarensis had been found in Ethiopia. The finding is of humankind's earliest ancestor.

1998 - U.N. Security Council imposed arms embargo on Yugoslavia.

1998 - Buddy Hackett received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1998 - For the first time in U.S. history the federal government's detailed financial statement was released. This occurred under the Clinton administration.

1999 - Three U.S. soldiers were captured by Yugoslav soldiers three miles from the Yugoslav border in Macedonia.

1999 - Fabio was hit in the face by a bird during a promotional ride of a new roller coaster at the Busch Gardens theme park in Williamsburg, VA. Fabio received a one-inch cut across his nose.

2000 - In Uganda, officials set the number of deaths linked to a doomsday religious cult, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments, at more than 900. In Kanungu, a March 17 fire at the cult's church killed more than 530 and authorities subsequently found mass graves at various sites linked to the cult.

2004 - Air America Radio launched five stations around the U.S.

2004 - Google Inc. announced that it would be introducing a free e-mail service called Gmail.

2016 - Apple released the iPhone SE.

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